Not only does he relay these case stories to the reader to emphasize the points of the models he describes, but he also attempts to help the reader to become more politically savvy and aware of the processes that occur in government....
The actual definition seems to have been obscured and almost lost by such representations and clichés that tend not to pinpoint the true essence, which defines this thing, called politics.
Development in an international concept has not been defined yet, nevertheless, some points had been generally accepted. International development is a process of infrastructure’s formation, the creation of social programs, poverty’s and illiteracy’s decline, raise of GNP per capita, support of developed countries for economic growth, civil rights’ security, and the junction of developing countries into global political structures. The development is related to health, educational, environmental, economic, and democratic issues, as well as to crisis forecast, governance system and structural reforms.
Laura Stoker, a professor at the University of California, Berkeley, created a graph (Figure 1) that separates people’s political standing based on their views of state intervention in private life and the economy (The Charles and Louise Travers Department of Political Science University of California, Berkeley).
The Impact of Nationalism
The ideas of Qasim Amin reflected those who closely linked the emancipation of women and rejection of veiling to national movements for independence. For this group, the changing roles of women in society were important ways to convince the overseas colonial rulers that their subject nations were ready to govern themselves. Women were encouraged to be symbols of the new state. Those who resisted these ideas of social progress were mocked. Turkish elites, for example, mocked women covered in black, calling them "beetles." Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, who began to build a secular nation-state in 1923, denounced the veil, calling it demeaning and a hindrance to civilized nation. But he did not outlaw it. Shortly after, in Iran in the 1930s, Reza Shah Pahlevi did, issuing a proclamation banning the veil outright. For many women, this decree in its suddenness was not liberating but frightening. Some refused to leave home for fear of having their veil torn from their face by the police.
Male leaders of nationalist movements encouraged women to join them and appear more freely in public. Slowly some women did. In 1910, a young Turkish woman attracted attention by daring to have herself photographed. At about the same time, educated women in Turkey began to leave the house unveiled, but still wearing hijab. The most dramatic public unveiling was undertaken by Huda Shaarawi in Egypt in 1923. Following suit were Ibtihaj Kaddura in Lebanon, Adila Abd al-Qudir al-Jazairi in Syria, and much later Habibah Manshari in Tunis. Moroccan scholar Fatima Mernissi remembers the fight her mother had with her father about replacing her heavier traditional veil with "a tiny triangular black veil made of sheer silk chiffon. This drove Father crazy: 'It is so transparent! You might as well go unveiled!' But soon the small veil, the litham, became the fashion, with all the nationalists' wives wearing it all over Fez - to gatherings in the mosque and to public celebrations, such as when political prisoners were liberated by the French."
Women's organizations also played an important role in transforming dress, although this was a minor issue in their struggle for women's political rights and for legal reforms. It should be stressed that for many women it was not the fact of wearing the veil that was the issue, but that the veil symbolized the relegation of women to a secluded world that did not allow them to participate in public affairs...
NGO’s are less organized structures than political ones and when the crisis comes they fail to complete their mission and serve as an example of ineffective institution. Ancient civilizations had set an ideal pattern of top-down approach. Wise pharaohs, who had established ruling dynasties that lasted for centuries and brilliant emperors, who had conquered almost half of the existent world, are the greatest examples of leadership, authority and good governance. Thus, the most effective approach to make solid arena for the future development of world politics is considered to be a top-down method.
After the 1930’s the United States moved to broader theoretical models of political change, thus leaving candidates the need to widely promote their ideologies to obtain votes.1 The growth of the media during this time changed the handling of campaigns and as a result left political candidates to aggressively pursue political consultants to advocate their elections in the interest of the aspirant’s party....
On the other hand, people, who support “top-down” approach, agree that bottom-up method lacks of discipline and clearly defined strategy, which is a core stage in any process of development and implementation. Global democracy should not be based on equal rights without privileges and hierarchy in all social levels, because sooner or later it may bring chaos. Even our highly democratized community is composed of poor and rich, educated and illiterate, flabby and firm characters.
The next ten years are the running start for developing countries of East Asia, while post-communistic Eastern Europe and sub-Saharan Africa seem to make no headway. The rapid growth of China’s economy had drawn attention of foreign capitals and investments. This country has proven to have a reliable and cheap labor force that, nevertheless, produces high-quality products. Since the ideologies and economic standards had shifted from monarchal to democratized ones, all their political and governmental actions were set to reach top-ranked economic growth and development.
Most Muslim women today do not wear a full face veil. It is more common to see women in hijab, loose clothing topped by a type of scarf worn around the head and under the chin. Women don't share a common style nor have the same reasons for wearing hijab. For many it reflects the belief that they are following God's commandments, are dressing according to "the correct standard of modesty," or simply are wearing the type of traditional clothes they feel comfortable in.
The end of the Cold War had crushed the iron curtain and made way for new era of world politics and international development. Japan, followed by South Korea, and Thailand, has invested in Asian production network and created a ground base for foreign capitals. The Chinese, Korean and Singaporean markets are glutted with export products; thus, the East Asia holds the trump cards for economic development for the next ten years. Geographical advantage, cheap labor, high-quality products and population’s growth are bases for successful foreign capital’s experiences.
Whether it was the Federalist/Democratic-Republican system in the late 18th and early 19th centuries or the Democratic/Republican system we know today, two ideologically opposite parties have always maintained dominant control of the American political system....