The good/evil pattern of valuation is quite different. It focuses itsnegative evaluation (evil) on violations of the interests orwell-being of others—and consequently its positive evaluation(good) on altruistic concern for their welfare. Such a morality needsto have universalistic pretensions: if it is to promote and protectthe welfare of all, its restrictions and injunctions must apply toeveryone equally. It is thereby especially amenable to ideas of basichuman equality, starting from the thought that each person has anequal claim to moral consideration and respect. These are familiarideas in the modern context—so familiar, indeed, that Nietzscheobserves how easily we confuse them with “the moral manner ofvaluation as such” (GM Pref., 4)—but theuniversalist structure, altruistic sentiments, and egalitariantendency of those values mark an obvious contrast with the valuationof exclusive virtues in the good/bad pattern. The contrast, togetherwith the prior dominance of good/bad structured moralities, raises astraightforward historical question: What happened? How did we getfrom the widespread acceptance of good/bad valuation to the nearuniversal dominance of good/evil thinking?
As the passage makes clear, however, Nietzschean perspectives arethemselves rooted in affects (and the valuations to which affects giverise), and in his mind, the ability to deploy a variety ofperspectives is just as important for our practical and evaluativelives as it is for cognitive life. In GM I, 16, for example,he wraps up a discussion of the sharp opposition between the good/badand good/evil value schemes with a surprising acknowledgment that thebest of his contemporaries will need both, despite the opposition:
The three essays--"'Good and Evil,' 'Good and Bad'; "'Guilt,' 'Bad Conscience,' and the Like"; and "What is the Meaning of Ascetic Ideals?"--investigate closely related aspects of Nietzsche's primary philosophical concern: the origins, persistence and increasingly ill effects of Christian morality on the psychic health of Europe.
Nietzsche's book prior to this one was , and we are to note here that this is not to say beyond goodand bad (that is, not: beyond the noble and the ignoble), but ratherbeyond the resentful opposition of the weak (who call themselves"good") to the strong (which the weak call "evil").
Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Genealogy of SparkNotes: Genealogy of Morals: SummaryThe first essay, "'Good and Evil,' 'Good and Bad'" contrasts what Nietzsche calls "master morality" and "slave morality." Master morality was developed by the strong On the Genealogy of Morality - WikipediaSummary Preface.