The initial death count in Hiroshima, set at 42,000–93,000, was based solely on the disposal of bodies, and was thus much too low. Later surveys covered body counts, missing persons, and neighborhood surveys during the first months after the bombing, yielding a more reliable estimate of 130,000 dead as of November 1945. A similar survey by officials in Nagasaki set its death toll at 60,000–70,000. (Its plutonium bomb was more powerful, but its destructive range was limited by surrounding hills and mountains).
*Estimated air dose of gamma rays: Hiroshima: 10,300 rads; Nagasaki: 25,100 rads.
*Estimated neutron dosages: Hiroshima, 14,100 rads; Nagasaki: 3,900 rads.
Chromosomes are present in constant numbers in the nuclei of cells, and can be seen as visible entities during cell division. The count in humans is a constant 46. Chromosome aberrations were first noted in exposed survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1960. Subsequent systematic surveys revealed a high frequency of aberrations in blood cells and lymphocytes in fetuses exposed to large radiation doses in utero (in the womb) or soon after birth.
Overall, there were approximately 23,753 lives taken by “Fat Man.” The Nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not help America because it started the Cold War, killed many innocent Japanese people, and caused other countries to feel that we are more ruthless than the J...
A Nagasaki survey of 98 pregnant women exposed at a distance of 2.0 km from ground zero and 113 pregnant women exposed at 4.0 and 5.0 km from ground zero, showed a high percentage of neonatal and infantile deaths for those exposed within a 2.0 km range, as well as signs of acute radiation illness such as loss of hair, bleeding tendency, and inner mouth lesions. Mental retardation was noted in 25% of newborn survivors.
The nuclear bombing did nevertheless prove devastating, with approximately 22.7% of Nagasaki's buildings being consumed by flames, but the death toll and destruction was less than in Hiroshima. It is believed that up to 140,000 people died in total as a result of the bombing of Nagasaki.
Given all of these reasons, the US was in quite a hurry to drop the bomb. Shortly after successfully testing history's first atomic explosion at Trinity, New Mexico, on July 16, 1945, the order to drop the atomic bomb on Japan was issued on July 25.
In Japan, the bombings and their human toll have been widely portrayed in film, literature and comics, but the country has struggled with its own silences. It took decades for Japan to acknowledge as , or bomb-affected people, the tens of thousands of Koreans kept as prisoners or used as slave laborers by the Japanese. A handful of European prisoners of war are also listed. Even "Barefoot Gen," a pioneering Hiroshima survivor’s tale, has recently fallen out of favor among some Japanese, who reject its depiction of Japanese brutality as an affront to the country’s heroic past.
Many reasons are given as to why the US administration decided to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Reasons include the following:
Over the next month, Al Jazeera America will mark the 70th anniversary of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by exploring the uncomfortable truths of the bomb and its enduring legacy in Japan, in the United States and throughout a global community where nuclear-weapons capability remains the ultimate currency of power. The bomb left the bomb bay of the Enola Gay seven decades ago, but its story is far from over.
Within three days in the month of August 1945 and nearing the end of World War II, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan would become the testing ground and their people the test dummies for a new kind of war weapon; the atomic bomb.
On August 6, 1945 the US dropped an atomic bomb (Little Boy) on Hiroshima in Japan. Three days later a second atomic bomb (Fat Man) was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. These are the only occasions nuclear weapons have ever been used in war.
Due to the hilly geography of Nagasaki and the bombing focus being away from the city centre, the excessive damage from the bombing was limited to the Urakami Valley and part of downtown Nagasaki. The centre of Nagasaki, the harbour, and the historic district were shielded from the blast by the hills around the Urakami River.
The fact that the Nagasaki bomb was more powerful and also the narrowing effect of the surrounding hills did mean that physical destruction in the Urakami Valley was even greater than in Hiroshima. Virtually nothing was left standing.