According to the gathered data, thefemale subjects frequently displayed more types of facial reactions compared tothe male subjects and encoded the emotional components of the first twosentences more effectively as well. For the first sentence, the most dramaticgender difference can be found in the movement of lips (17 vs. 40). For thesecond sentence, female subjects raised their eyebrows and moved the cheeks andlips to smile twice as many times as the male subjects did. However, the mostsignificant difference can be found in the movement of eyes (17 vs. 35 and 21vs. 44). Female subjects moved their eyes to show bigger smile or an expressionof joy and happiness three times as much as the male subjects did (8 vs. 26).Therefore, the frequency of females’ facial expressions dramatically dominatesover that of males’ facial expressions. Now, to answer the second raisedquestions, the third graph can be incorporated in this analysis to be comparedto the first two. Interestingly, the female subjects still revealed more facialreactions to the neutral third sentence than the male subjects did. According tothe graph, the female subjects raised their eyebrows and moved up their cheeksand lips to smile nearly three times as much as the male subjects did (6 vs. 18and 8 vs. 25). Moreover, the female subjects also moved their eyes to smiletwice as much as the male subjects did. These experiment findings reveals asignificant basis for the fact that women, in general, smile more even when thesituation does not call for it. In addition, these results prove that women’smotives in smiling are not perceptively tuned to situational demands(sentences) as men’s are. Moreover, women’s smile may not be entirelyconsistent with messages conveyed in the verbal or voice-tone channels.
In the modern era, women have been honored for their militant participation during civil wars and the struggles against invaders. In the Taiping Rebellion mainly Hakka women with unbound feet fought both as soldiers and generals against the Manchu government. Women took up arms again in the Boxer Rebellion when young women organized themselves into militant Red Lantern groups. During the Cultural Revolution, the militancy of young female Red Guards attest to their willingness to become revolutionary heroes when struggling for what they perceived to be a just cause. Individual revolutionary female icons who have been held up as powerful figures for women to emulate include Chinas Chiu Chin (Qiu Jin), who in 1907 was executed by the Manchu government, and Soong-li Ching (Soong Ching-ling), wife of Dr. Sun Yat-sen and champion of social justice and womens liberation, and Deng Yingchao, an advocate of womens rights and wife of Zhou Enlai. The societal admiration of female heroines such as these has helped justify the actions of the women who managed successfully to define new roles for themselves alongside men.
The use of faceis constrained and facilitated by socialization processes in every society. Theindividuals also bring to bear upon the processes of communication their ownpersonal characteristics and styles. In addition, facial expressions for aspecific content could vary not only from age to age of an individual’s lifebut also across different cultural settings.
Furthermore, this experiment should also take into consideration that the decoder’s bias may have played a role in interpreting emotional reactivity on the faces of male and female subjects, because emotions are more easily judged from women’s than from men’s faces, as Noller suggests. The opinions concerning what men and women can or should express emotionally can modify the interpretations of their actual expressions. This bias, which can be produced by stereotypes concerning the expression of emotions, lead to different perceptions of men’s and women’s emotional facial expression when in fact they are both displaying exactly the same emotion. Further studies can show that sexual stereotypes concerning emotional manifestation can play a role during the decoding of emotional facial expressions even when the encoding differences are controlled. These results can lead us to modify our view of sex differences in emotions by removing at least some of the responsibility for observed bias from the encoder and attributing it to the decoder. This suggests that the recognition of emotional facial expressions is yet another field where stereotypes concerning group membership can have an influence. It is therefore possible that yet unidentified emotional stereotypes can modify the perception and interpretation of visual and contextual information linked to the facial expression of emotions. It would be interesting to be able to identify these stereotypes and to see whether these differences generalize to male encoders.
He concludes that most of these studies on the academic achievement of the two genders had many major limitations because they were “one-shot research designs,” and there were different measurements used in the samples which allowed for more generalizations to be made, rather than actual measurements (Bursal, 2013, p.
Students should work at all levels of the taxonomy. It should not be viewed as a ladder, however, nor as a framework for differentiated instruction (Tomlinson & McTighe, 2006, pp. 119-120). The taxonomy is helpful for breaking down state standards into meaningful components as teachers plan their instruction. Planning for instruction will be elaborated upon in of this essay on content and curriculum mapping.
Theroux (2004) addressed four ways to differentiate instruction: content (requires pre-testing to determine the depth and complexity of the knowledge base that learners will explore), process (leads to a variety of activities and strategies to help students gain knowledge), product (complexity varies in ways for assessing learning), and manipulating the environment or accommodating learning styles. Fairness is a key concept to emphasize with learners, who will recognize that not everyone will work on the same thing at the same time. They need to appreciate that not everyone has the same needs. Likewise, Hall, Strangman, and Meyer (2003) presented a graphic organizer within their work, which they called the Learning Cycle and Decision Factors Used in Planning and Implementing Differentiated Instruction and also provided a number of links to learn more about this topic. ASCD has multiple.
The process of differentiation is challenging for educators, as it requires developing skills to teach in a flexible manner that responds to the unique needs of learners. Often total lessons or the pace of individual lessons need to be adjusted "on-the-fly." Teacher-led group instruction is only one model of instruction. So, teachers also need to know about additional resources beyond what's in the textbook or available in print format that can be used to help learners. For example, students can also learn from each other in collaborative groups, or from virtual instructors in online settings, or by working alone using software or apps. They can get different perspectives on a topic from viewing podcasts.
Using video and audio to support multiple intelligences and varied learning preferences and disabilities is one of the strategies noted by Tomlinson and McTighe's (2006) to support differentiated instruction. Here's a sampling of video sites for your consideration in support of their recommendation:
Some might not appreciate the true essence of cooperative learning, a feature employed in differentiating instruction. Learners are responsible for not just their own learning, but the learning of others. Shared learning leads to success for all, as each member of a learning group has a specific role to play in reaching a common goal. Successful groups include positive interdependence--if one fails, the entire group is affected. There is both individual and group accountability; although some work might be completed individually, some must be accomplished by group interactions. Typicalinclude think-pair-share, the three-step interview, the jigsaw, and numbered heads. might include focused listing to brainstorm or examine concepts and descriptions, structured problem solving, one-minute papers, paired annotations, guided reciprocal peer questioning, and send-a-problem.
Caution: Readers should also be aware that although determining learning styles might have great appeal, "The bottom line is that there is no consistent evidence that matching instruction to students' learning styles improves concentration, memory, self-confidence, grades, or reduces anxiety," according to Dembo and Howard (2007, p. 106). Rather, Dembo and Howard indicated, "The best practices approach to instruction can help students become more successful learners" (p. 107). Such instruction incorporates "Educational research [that] supports the teaching of learning strategies...; systematically designed instruction that contains scaffolding features...; and tailoring instruction for different levels of prior knowledge" (p. 107). Cognitive scientists Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2009) supported this position and stated, "Although the literature on learning styles is enormous, very few studies have even used an experimental methodology capable of testing the validity of learning styles applied to education. Moreover, of those that did use an appropriate method, several found results that flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis" (p. 105). They concluded "at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice" (p. 105) and "widespread use of learning-style measures in educational settings is unwise and a wasteful use of limited resources. ... If classification of students' learning styles has practical utility, it remains to be demonstrated" (p. 117). This position is further confirmed by Willingham, Hughes, and Dobolyi (2015) who concluded in their scientific investigation into the status of learning theories: "Learning styles theories have not panned out, and it is our
responsibility to ensure that students know that" (p. 269).