The primary concern is privacy. DNA profiles are different from fingerprints, which are useful only for identification. DNA can provide insights into many intimate aspects of a person and their families including susceptibility to particular diseases, legitimacy of birth, and perhaps predispositions to certain behaviors and sexual orientation. This increases the potential for genetic discrimination by government, insurers, employers, schools, banks, and others.
Many of the essay topics listed above are what members want to see discussed. In addition, there are many topics not yet provided that many members would like to see the Church discuss in detail. These include:
While Deoxyribonucleic Acid, or DNA, has been successfully mapped out, many of its interactions with certain proteins and enzymes have not been fully revealed within the atomic level.
While Zinc fingers specific to DNA trinucleotides, coupled to different effector domains have been employed for targeted manipulation of the genome with considerable success, we are limited by the off-target toxicity caused by trinucleotide specific zinc fingers....
The evolution of DNA technology is vital to the process of solving crimes, however the process by which DNA is found and handle can jeopardize its powerfulness....
This paper examines Carrells et al’s research along with three other research articles to review how DNA is collected, the effects that is has on a juror and the pros and cons of DNA collection in the Forensic Science and Criminal Justice community. Keywords: deoxyribo...
If the patterns match, the suspect may have contributed the evidence sample. While there is a chance that someone else has the same DNA profile for a particular probe set, the odds are exceedingly slim. The question is, How small do the odds have to be when conviction of the guilty or acquittal of the innocent lies in the balance? Many judges consider this a matter for a jury to take into consideration along with other evidence in the case. Experts point out that using DNA forensic technology is far superior to eyewitness accounts, where the odds for correct identification are about 50:50.
Irish-based families may wish to connect with relatives, who may have emigrated in times past, where there is no paper trail or living memory to help with making these connections. How many people in Ireland can say “most of my family emigrated in the Famine and we have no idea where they went or who their descendants are”. Or “we have no contact with branches of our family who left Ireland a long time ago”. Must this be the case? DNA can open doors for the Irish who have lost track of relatives.
DNA replication, transcription, and translation allows for transmission of genetic information to new cells. Replication involves the separation of the DNA double helix in which each parent strand serves as a template for nucleotide bases to pair with creating a new complimentary strand. After completion of replication two new double helixes are formed from the original one. Therefore after a cell divides each daughter cell gets a DNA molecule carrying information form the parent cell. The process of transcription in which proteins are synthesized is similar to the replication process. The information in a DNA molecule is copied into a molecule of messenger RNA which can then be carried out of the cell nucleus into other parts of the cell. The information carried in the messenger RNA allows for the production of a specific protein through translation. Translation occurs when messenger RNA is attached to ribosomes in the cell. During translation the mRNA is read as a sequence of codons which include three bases. Each codon specifies a specific amino acid to be added to a polypeptide chain. An example of the formation of an amino acid is the codon with bases UGG which would produce the amino acid Tryptophan.
Who is chosen for sampling is also a concern. In the United Kingdom, for example, all suspects can be forced to provide a DNA sample. Likewise, all arrestees --regardless of the degree of the charge and the possibility that they may not be convicted--can be compelled to comply. This empowers police officers, rather than judges and juries, to provide the state with intimate evidence that could lead to "investigative arrests." In the U.S., arresting people on less than probable cause just to obtain DNA evidence raises the question of Fourth Amendment violations against unreasonable search and seizure.
Scientists find the markers in a DNA sample by designing small pieces of DNA (probes) that will each seek out and bind to a complementary DNA sequence in the sample. A series of probes bound to a DNA sample creates a distinctive pattern for an individual. Forensic scientists compare these DNA profiles to determine whether the suspect's sample matches the evidence sample. A marker by itself usually is not unique to an individual; if, however, two DNA samples are alike at four or five regions, odds are great that the samples are from the same person.
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is contained in the mitochondria of the cell. The mitochondria are organelles located outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm of the cell. These organelles are responsible for energy transfer and are basically the "powerhouses" of the cells. The CIL uses this form of DNA because it preserves well in bones and many of the casualties that we are attempting to identify do not have blood samples on file (unlike the modern military). This form of DNA is in short strands and therefore does not mutate or change form very quickly - it is relatively stable and can be compared across several generations. Mitochondrial DNA is only passed along the maternal line - so if we want to compare a sample from a casualty individual we have to obtain a blood sample from the mother or any of the siblings who would share the same sequence of mtDNA as the mother. If nieces or nephews were to contribute DNA samples, only the child of a sister would contain the proper sequence since a brother's child would obtain his or her mtDNA from his mother who would not be a blood relative of the deceased in question.