A self-made star, Kunis has experienced many of the same triumphs, but also much of the same overt and subtle sexism as countless other successful women in Hollywood. She's detailed these experiences in an excellent , which begins with her recollection of one horribly cliched producer, who told the actress she'd "never work in this town again" if she chose not to pose semi-nude on a men's magazine cover to promote their film. "I was livid, I felt objectified, and for the first time in my career I said 'no.' And guess what? The world didn't end. The film made a lot of money and I did work in this town again, and again, and again," Kunis writes. "What this producer may never realize is that he spoke aloud the exact fear every woman feels when confronted with gender bias in the workplace."
Kunis's essay continues to outline the ways in which these gender biases, both explicit and subconscious, are institutionally sustained. She points to the gender pay gap and entrenched cultures of silence ("It's what we are conditioned to believe — that if we speak up, our livelihoods will be threatened; that standing our ground will lead to our demise") as contributing factors to the cyclical nature of gender inequality in her industry and in the wider world.
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The United Nations sees gender equality as an important goal, as four of the eight Millennium Development Goals for lowering poverty levels are directly related to women.
The European Institute for Gender Equality (EIGE) provides an easily interpretable measure of gender equality in the EU across 6 key policy domains – work, money, knowledge, time, power and health, and two satellite domains (violence and intersecting inequalities).
A number of international comparative gender equality indices also exist which offer a way to compare Ireland’s achievements with those of other countries. Each index looks at a distinct list of parameters and the choice of parameters affects the outcome for each country.
There are several sources for these inequalities, including gaps in education, lack of resource access, the inability to access the labor market and structural inequalities (United Nations Industrial Development Organization, 2012)....
The Central Statistics Office regularly publishes "", a compendium of key statistics which enable us to map progress achieved towards de facto gender equality in Ireland.
The essay comes at a moment in which Hollywood is wrestling with myriad issues of equality and respect, both on and off the screen. Patricia Arquette ignited the conversation when she delivered a searing address about the gender-pay gap while accepting the Oscar for Best Supporting Actress in 2015. Since then, countless other women have spoken out about their experiences with sexism and agism. Simultaneously, the film industry is attempting to make itself more racially inclusive, after the Academy's failure to nominate a single actor of color for the second year in a row sparked widespread outrage and urgent critical dialogue.
The Council of Europe has also compiled a based on the definitions and terms of Council of Europe instruments and standards relating to gender equality and this is available online.
Promoting equity in the classroom does not necessarily mean treating all students equally. That is, though it does mean giving all students equal opportunities to succeed, it may also mean giving some students more encouragement to perform in class or structuring your class in ways that promote greater participation from a wider number of students. Explicitly encouraging quieter students by calling on them or by placing them in group settings where participation seems easier or less threatening is one example of how ensuring equity sometimes calls for additional measures. Paying closer attention to gender dynamics in the classroom leads both to better teaching and to better learning for male and female students.
The European Institute for Gender Equality has compiled an online , drawn from international and regional women’s human rights instruments, European Union and Council of Europe legislative and strategy documents.