This report describes MOLES 1.0, an integrated land-use and transport model developed with Object-Oriented Programming principles in order to combine selected characteristics from Spatial Computable General Equilibrium and microsimulation models. MOLES 1.0 models the links between urban land use, mobility patterns, urban economic activities and their environmental impacts, in particular air pollution and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs).
Behavioural insights can help policy makers obtain a deeper understanding of the behavioural mechanisms contributing to environmental problems, and design and implement more effective policy interventions. This report reviews recent developments in the application of behavioural insights to encourage more sustainable consumption, investment and compliance decisions by individuals and firms.
Environmental policy is an organization or governmentâs commitment to laws, regulations, and policy mechanism that are concerned with the environment and sustainability. Such issues that are covered under environmental policy include or , , solid waste management, the protection of wildlife and natural resources. Such policies are pursued by governments through the utilization of a number of tools, such as economic incentives or tax breaks, designed to make up for market failure of free enterprise to regulate itself.
Modern environmental policy movements can be traced to the , pushed by the 1962 publication of Silent Spring and the creation of Earth Day in 1970. created the EPA, the Environmental Protection Agency, in 1970, regulating pollutants that could be pumped into the air and water. The formation of the EPA by the U.S. drove the implementation of environmental policy in many other nations.
adopted the Environmental Action Programme in 1973, which has led to comprehensive environmental policy as a core function of politics in EU member nations. Such governmental action has led to a greater awareness on the part of corporations in evaluating their environmental impact and developing policies of their own. As a result of such movements, many universities now offer graduate programs in environmental policy, educating experts who can direct policy implementation on a corporate or government level.
This report provides a comprehensive assessment of the economic consequences of outdoor air pollution in the coming decades, focusing on the impacts on mortality, morbidity, and changes in crop yields as caused by high concentrations of pollutants. Unless more stringent policies are adopted, findings point to a significant increase in global emissions and concentrations of air pollutants, with severe impacts on human health and the environment.
How have behavioural insights been used by governments to tackle environmental problems and which behavioural interventions have been shown to work in practice?
- On 17 May, Elisabetta Cornago of the OECD Environment Directorate discussed how governments have leveraged behavioural insights to encourage more sustainable consumption, investment and compliance decisions by individuals and firms.
The presentation is based on the OECD report published on 10 May.
The report shows that insights from the behavioural sciences – behavioural insights – can help policy makers obtain a deeper understanding of the behavioural mechanisms that contribute to environmental problems, and design and implement more effective policy interventions.
Download the presentation (forthcoming).
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