In contrast, for Dewey each individual was an organism situated ina biological and social environment in which problems were constantlyemerging, forcing the individual to reflect, act, and learn. Dewey,following William James, held that knowledge arises from reflectionupon our actions and that the worth of a putative item of knowledge isdirectly correlated with the problem-solving success of the actionsperformed under its guidance. Thus Dewey, sharply disagreeing withPlato, regarded knowing as an active rather than a passiveaffair—a strong theme in his writings is his opposition to whatis sometimes called “the spectator theory ofknowledge”. All this is made clear enough in a passagecontaining only a thinly-veiled allusion to Plato's famous allegory ofthe prisoners in the cave whose eyes are turned to the light byeducation:
The thinking here can be explicated in terms of the analogy of anout-of-control virulent disease, for which there is only one type ofmedicine available; taking a large dose of this medicine is extremelybeneficial, and the hope is that taking only a little—while lesseffective—is better than taking none at all. Medically, this isdubious, while the educational version—forcing students to work,until they exit the system, on topics that do not interest them andfor which they have no facility or motivation—has even lessmerit. (For a critique of Adler and hisPaideia Proposal, see Noddings 2011.) It is interesting tocompare the modern “one curriculum track for all” positionwith Plato's system outlined in the Republic, according towhich all students—and importantly this included girls—setout on the same course of study. Over time, as they moved up theeducational ladder it would become obvious that some had reached thelimit imposed upon them by nature, and they would be directed off intoappropriate social roles in which they would find fulfillment, fortheir abilities would match the demands of these roles. Those whocontinued on with their education would eventually be able tocontemplate the metaphysical realm of the “forms”, thanksto their advanced training in mathematics and philosophy. Having seenthe form of the Good, they would be eligible after a period ofpractical experience to become members of the ruling class ofGuardians.
The modus operandi of dominating every aspect of the state and the individual--- to unleash violence, terror, and utter control to mobilize the masses as a submissive force to reach certain aims....
The most lively contemporary debates about education research,however, were set in motion around the turn of the millennium when theUS Federal Government moved in the direction of funding onlyrigorously scientific educational research—the kind that couldestablish causal factors which could then guide the development ofpractically effective policies. (It was held that such a causalknowledge base was available for medical decisionmaking.) Thedefinition of “rigorously scientific”, however, wasdecided by politicians and not by the research community, and it wasgiven in terms of the use of a specific research method—the neteffect being that the only research projects to receive Federalfunding (until this policy was reversed by the new Obamaadministration) were those that carried out randomized controlledexperiments or field trials (RFTs). It has become common over the lastdecade to refer to the RFT as the “gold standard”methodology.
WhenI first came to the idea of primary and secondary society a few years ago, Iwas possessed by the question what was the brain power storage for the suddendevelopment of a complex new life in the man-made secondary society only five orsix thousand years ago after humans had lived a simple life in primary societyfor at least two hundred thousand years? Now it seems clear that the left andthe right hemisphere of our brain and their connection may be the neurologicalbasis. When patients have half of their brain cut off in the surgical procedureknown as , they can survive andfunction pretty well, but they will have some physical disabilities. Thepatients may even overcome the physical disabilities by reorganization of theleft over half of the brain especially when the patients who go through theprocedure are young. Intellectually they are doing well in college, and one ofthem became the champion bowler of her class, and another, the chess championof his state according to a neurologist John Freeman of . Thus humans might have half of their brain power stored for the emergenceof a complex lifestyle created by humans themselves. According to Julian , the connection of the two hemispheres is verylimited, and the transferring of information through the two hemispheres mustbe coded. This also applies to the connection of primary and secondarysocieties. From primary society to secondary society, a coded system is a must,which may include language, value systems, codes for behaviour, law and so on.
Third, there are a number of educational theorists and researcherswhose field of activity is not philosophy but (forexample) human development or learning theory, who intheir technical work and sometimes in their non-technical books andreflective essays explicitly raise philosophical issues or adoptphilosophical modes of argumentation—and do so in ways worthy ofcareful study. If philosophy (including philosophy of education) isdefined so as to include analysis and reflection at an abstract or“meta-level”, which undoubtedly is a domain where manyphilosophers labor, then these individuals should have a place in theannals of philosophy or philosophy of education; but too often,although not always, accounts of the field ignore them. Their workmight be subjected to scrutiny for being educationally important, buttheir conceptual or philosophical contributions are rarely focusedupon. (Philosophers of the physical and biological sciences are farless prone to make this mistake about the meta-level work ofreflective scientists in these domains.)
The general areas of study in political science include American government and politics, political theory, public administration, public law, comparative politics and international relations....
Fourth, and in contrast to the group above, there is a type of workthat is traditionally but undeservedly given a prominent place in theannals of philosophy of education, and which thereby generates a greatdeal of confusion and misunderstanding about the field. These are thebooks and reflective essays on educational topics that were written bymainstream philosophers, a number of whom are counted among thegreatest in the history of the discipline. The catch is this: Evengreat philosophers do not always write philosophy! The reflectionsbeing referred to contain little if any philosophical argumentation,and usually they were not intended to be contributions to theliterature on any of the great philosophical questions. Rather, theyexpressed the author's views (or even prejudices) on educationalrather than philosophical problems, and sometimes—as in the caseof Bertrand Russell's rollicking pieces defending progressiveeducational practices—they explicitly were“potboilers” written to make money. (In Russell's case theroyalties were used to support a progressive school he was runningwith his then-current wife.) Locke, Kant, and Hegel also are amongthose who produced work of this genre. (It should be noted thatRussell also made serious contributions to philosophy of education ofthe technical sort discussed below. Cf. Hare 1987.)
In describing the field of philosophy, and in particular the sub-fieldof philosophy of education, one quickly runs into a difficulty notfound to anything like the same degree in other disciplines. Forexample, although there are some internal differences in opinion,nevertheless there seems to be quite a high degree of consensus withinthe domain of quantum physics about which researchers are competentmembers of the field and which ones are not, and what work is a strong(or potential) contribution. The very nature of philosophy, on theother hand, is “essentially contested”; what counts as asound philosophical work within one school of thought, orsocio-cultural or academic setting, may not be so regarded (and mayeven be the focus of derision) in a different one. Coupled with thisis the fact that the borders of the field are not policed, so that thephilosophically untrained can cross into it freely—indeed, overthe past century or more a great many individuals from across thespectrum of real and pseudo disciplines have for whatever reasonexercised their right to self-identify as members of this broad andloosely defined category of “philosophers” (as a fewminutes spent browsing in the relevant section of a bookstore or someof the less scholarly education journals will verify).
John Locke is an interesting case in point. He had been requested bya cousin and her husband—possibly in part because of hismedical training—to give advice on the upbringing of their sonand heir; the youngster seems to have troubled his parents, most likelybecause he had learning difficulties. Locke, then in exile in Europe,wrote the parents a series of letters in which alongside sensibleadvice about such matters as the priorities in the education of alanded gentleman, and about making learning fun for the boy, there werea few strange items such as the advice that the boy should wear leakyshoes in winter so that he would be toughened up! The letterseventually were printed in book form under the title Some ThoughtsConcerning Education (1693), and seem to have had enormousinfluence down the ages upon educational practice; after two centuriesthe book had run through some 35 English editions and well over thirtyforeign editions, and it is still in print and is frequently excerptedin books of readings in philosophy of education. In stark contrast,several of Locke's major philosophical writings—theEssay Concerning Human Understanding, and the Letter onToleration—have been overlooked by most educationaltheorists over the centuries, even though they have enormous relevancefor educational philosophy, theory, policy, and practice. It isespecially noteworthy that the former of these books was the foundationfor an approach to psychology—associationism—thatthrived during the nineteenth century. In addition it stimulatedinterest in the processes of child development and human learning;Locke's model of the way in which the “blank tablet”of the human mind became “furnished” with simple ideas thatwere eventually combined or abstracted in various ways to form complexideas suggested to some that it might be fruitful to study thisprocess in the course of development of a young child (Cleverley andPhillips 1986).
Instructor uses a whiteboard to demonstrate compare and contrast techniques using retail pizza chains as an example For middle school students and older