For more detailed information on the application of firing display fireworks with electrical squibs, I recommend readers absorb the past and on-going fine articles written by Sam Bases for AFN. (Incidentally, I have examined Sam's panels up close and they are truly a work of art!) - WO
While the formulae are given in Lbs., smaller batches can be made by substituting grams, ounces, etc. for the Lbs. or by multiplying or dividing all the quantities by the same number, keeping ratio relationships the same. For example, Formula 1 can be weighed out in ounces with each quantity multiplied by two to make enough stars for 3 or 4 shells. Formula 1 is a very fast burning star because it is 50% commercial Meal D black powder. It will ignite 100% from the strongest flash bag. The stronger, the better! Formula 2 needs to be ball milled for at least ten hours to be almost as fast, yet just as ignitable as formula 1. Because it burns slightly slower than formula 1 (after ball milling;), these stars achieve a larger spread in the sky. Ball milling also serves another purpose. It reduces the amount of ash and shortens the charcoal glow time. Without ball milling, some of the sparks may glow all the way to the ground. With ball milling, the golden stripes are more uniform and more beautiful, fading in unison. Formula 1 (less the Meal D;) can also be ball milled to achieve uniformity and less ash. Add the Meal D after ball milling the rest of the chemicals. Very slight dampening with a volume mix of 80% water with 20% denatured alcohol is helpful during ball milling. By slight I mean just enough to settle the dust but the mass still feels dry and flows freely as a powder.
There are two basic types of dud shells. The first type is when a shell fires and the burning time delay fuse goes out while the shell is ascending. The shell does not burst in the sky but instead falls cold to the ground. A slight 5 degree tilt of the battery mortars away from spectators on a windless night will assure that a dud, should one occur, will drop down range a ways, instead of on top of the operators or spectators. If there is any wind or breeze, you must take it into account before set-up. Wind direction and the location of spectators are very important factors in determining the exact placement of mortars. Should a dud fall to the ground, it MUST be found after the display at all costs! If it falls to the ground near spectators, it must be found and guarded immediately, with the spectators moved a safe distance away until it can be disposed. Also keep in mind you cannot be sure there were no duds in the grand finale. It's impossible to track every shell in a finale. Therefore, a good search of the display site is mandatory after the display. If possible, return at first daylight to closely inspect the display site and fallout zone. If you cannot return at first daylight, at least have it in your contract that your customer must do the inspection before allowing any children into the area. If you KNOW you have a dud and have not found it on the display night, you MUST make every effort to locate it at first daylight. Failure to do so may result in more legal grief than you can imagine with your negligence in the center of the plaintiff's claim.
180.) Reports of the Chief ofOrdnance and Board of Ordnance and Fortification. "Twelfth Report of theBoard of Ordnance and Fortifications," Annual Reports of the War Department1902 Volume VII.; 28 pages, including tables Includes: Changes in Personnel,Legislation, Financial Statement, Subjects Considered, General Operations, TheHundred-Gun Contract, Experimental Guns and Carriages, Shield for Coast-DefenseGuns, Rapid-Fire Guns and Mounts, Test of Mortar Batteries, Field Guns andCarriages: Program of Tests for Field Artillery, Requirements, Inspection,Firing Tests-Special: Velocity, Accuracy, Rapidity, Defective Ammunition, Dust,Rust , Excessive Charges, General Tests, Supplementary Tests, MiscellaneousMaterial: Automatic Arms, Miscellaneous 17 different tests, from range findersto entrenching tools, Automatic Pistols. Estimates for the Coming Year,Recommendations. Table Showing Allotments and Expenditures.., Subjectsconsidered during the Year. 28 pages printed two pages per sheet of paper. $4.00
A shell that breaks low causing colors to fall burning to the ground, or other effects such as reports to go off on the ground, is usually caused by insufficient lift pressure in the mortar from which the shell was fired. The most common reason (on hand fired displays) is, the operator placed the shell in the wrong size mortar pipe. For example, a 4" shell cannot be put in a 3" mortar but it can be placed in a 5" mortar by mistake. When this happens, the propellant lift charge gas pressure escapes around the outside of the shell instead of concentrating its driving energy underneath the shell. The result is the shell "puffs" out of the mortar, goes about 50 feet into the air, arches over and then falls toward the ground. The shell will burst low on its way to the ground scattering burning stars towards the ground. If the shell was a color with report or a multibreak shell, the remaining effects will continue to go off on the ground. If this should ever happen, it is imperative that all shell "ready" boxes or other such containers of live shells, be kept tightly closed or covered. Anyone on the crew who first notices this problem must quickly holler out and warn the others. The first sign of this type of problem-error will be the sound of the mortar at discharge. A "whoosh" or "foomp" sound should be an alarm signal. The normal discharge sound is a good cracking report - "thump!", which may sometimes ring the steel mortar pipe. Experience will teach the new operator the proper sound, and a low break will definitely sound different and grab attention. Other causes of a low break shell are a cracked mortar pipe, or too little lift charge when a shell was manufactured. These causes are very rare, however, and even a shell with reduced lift charge, when fired from the proper size mortar, will still achieve a fairly safe altitude when it bursts. If a mortar is cracked, or the bottom blown open, all shells fired from that particular mortar will be low breaks. This happens only when shells are repeatedly fired from an aluminum or heavy gage PVC plastic mortar with a wood bottom plug. It has never happened with a steel (welded bottom) mortar, except when shells detonate within. If a steel pipe blows its bottom, it suddenly won't be there anymore with only a crater left behind. Aluminum or plastic mortars must never be used as battery mortars, (those reloaded during a hand fired display;). Steel mortars have been know to develop cracks only if they overheat while taking a constant pressure pounding from repeated firings. This is why two 3" and two 4" steel battery mortars should be issued on every hand fired display. By firing alternately between the two mortars of each size, overheating is avoided. The larger 5" and 6" mortars can absorb and dissipate much more heat due to their shear mass and surface area. Also there are fewer 5" and 6" shells in any display compared to the quantity of 3 and 4" shells, which comprise the bulk quantity of display shells.
18.) Investigation of WD-1080 Steel, Use in Bayonet Blades by WatertownArsenal Laboratory. Report No. 320 / 29, 19 Jan 1944, A detailed examination insteel usage in bayonets. This was in answer to faster production, strongerblades and less price. 14 pages $4.50
(later General) Henry Scrapnel (sometimes spelled as "Shrapnel") of the British Army. This term has been used in the past to define shell fragments from most kinds of bursting projectiles, not necessarily anti-personnel types. Currently, the more accurate term "shell splinter" is in general use.
Trippers and askers surround me,
People I meet, the effect upon me of my early life or the ward and
city I live in, or the nation,
The latest dates, discoveries, inventions, societies, authors old and new,
My dinner, dress, associates, looks, compliments, dues,
The real or fancied indifference of some man or woman I love,
The sickness of one of my folks or of myself, or ill-doing or loss
or lack of money, or depressions or exaltations,
Battles, the horrors of fratricidal war, the fever of doubtful news,
the fitful events;
These come to me days and nights and go from me again,
But they are not the Me myself.
The hypothesis that intelligent behavior in plants may be an emergent property of cells exchanging signals in a network might sound far-fetched, yet the way that intelligence emerges from a network of neurons may not be very different. Most neuroscientists would agree that, while brains considered as a whole function as centralized command centers for most animals, within the brain there doesn’t appear to be any command post; rather, one finds a leaderless network. That sense we get when we think about what might govern a plant—that there is no there there, no wizard behind the curtain pulling the levers—may apply equally well to our brains.
84.) Mills Woven Military Equipments catalog. Undated but known to bepost 1921 reprint of a great Mills catalog. Shows many different types of beltsand all sorts of other gear. Has scabbards in it so we included it here. 24pages printed two pages to the sheet. $4.00
As other African nations enacted bans on small plastic bags, Uganda initially took a different approach to the environmental hazard. It delayed implementation of its ban and instead, told manufacturers of the bags to become involved in recycling them. As a result, many of them built recycling facilities. But the government was not happy with the results and outlawed possession, sale and manufacture of the bags, leaving bag makers feeling betrayed.
This is perhaps the most controversial aspect of the dud shell phenomenon. It has been the cause of many heated debates among shell makers who profess their theories with strong conviction and authority to justify the way they make their shells. The question is: what's better, firing a shell with the time delay fuse up or time delay fuse down? It appears there is no right or wrong way to fire a shell in this regard, as it is many factors that determine the success or failure of shell performance. However, the shell design and construction overview may mandate one way or the other in regards to fuse orientation. For example, I believe most shell makers agree that shells made with spoolettes (rammed Roman fuse;) should be fired with the fuse up to avoid flower pots due to the fuse powder core blowing through under lift pressure and blast. Since the bulk of shells made today are made with the 1/4" diameter Japanese or Chinese time delay fuse, this discussion will focus on its use.