Discovering what your ecological footprint is and how your actions effect the environment is a good place to start if you are concerned about ecological sustainability....
There are many ways to incorporate adaptation considerations into land conservation objectives. Considering current and future risks through a and working to reduce those risks are important considerations of that many land trusts already use to inform long-term management plans.
Eftec (2005) defines forest ecosystems service as benefits from forest to support human life through such natural processes, for example, in regulating air, water, and nutrient cycles, stabilizing microclimate, and preventing droughts and floods.
Savor using term term desertification of lands refers to many different landscapes. Unfortunately for the indoctrinated you fail to see the fact that every system is different and so are the variables and so managing from the halls of indoctrination will always fail. One needs to actually view every situation for its individuality in nature. I have seen the benefits of planned grazing in increased sage grouse numbers and other species in western colorado where the deer and elk migrate to.
Conservationists, like many people, usually do not prefer the desert. They may see it as waste, fit only for bombing ranges and solar farms. The idea that we can almost like magic, green the desert and the degraded lands, by running even more livestock, albeit in a different fashion, sucking up greenhouse gases all the while, is a compelling and dangerous fantasy.
The controversy that this essay confronts will be that of the desire to use public land for livestock grazing versus the importance of preserving the rangeland ecosystem....
Restoration projects, in particular those involving the reintroduction of the bison, give an example of bringing the native ecosystem of an area back to life.
saying that one should accept a wrong because your realtor (and even your state legislature) told you “that’s how it is on your land, and how it’s always been and probably is always likely to be” is a weak argument.
While approaches may vary, common elements of successful management efforts include and engaging in and to reduce risks of ecosystems and the communities that depend upon them. By incorporating data that reflects current and future climate trends into ongoing conservation efforts, land trusts are building adaptation into long-term stewardship objectives.
As land trusts succeed in protecting more lands, the importance of managing the conservation values on those lands in perpetuity will grow. Efforts to and will have profound implications for these stewardship efforts.
I do not, I use areas where the cattle have been removed. Savory specifically says no livestock is very bad, and I think he is almost always wrong, at least in the U.S. where I have extensive desert/arid land experience.
It’s likely the grasses did evolve with grazers, but Savory also believes the grazers of importance were always large mammals. Further, he believes that sheep, goats, and cattle (the latter a completely human produced animal) acceptably mimic the departed wild grazers. This is not true. Over millions of acres of North America deserts, bison, elk, javelina, and pronghorn never roamed and never grazed the deserts or the patches of grassland within them. These deserts were and are grazed, but by small mammals like rabbits, mice, reptiles such as desert tortoise, and insects. Grasses that evolved being eaten by tortoises and rabbits are not likely to respond well to being eaten in intense, even if short termed, bouts of grazing by the artificially created cow, or Old World animals such as sheep, goats, or horses.
We thank the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) for financial support of this work with funds from the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) within the project: “Natürliche Waldentwicklung als Ziel der Nationalen Strategie zur biologischen Vielfalt (NWE5)” (No. 3510 84 0100). We cordially thank Bernhard Thiel and Helen Desmond for their thorough revision of the language. We are grateful for the valuable comments and constructive critiques received from two anonymous reviewers.
A major goal of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is to improve the protection of biodiversity. One approach to meet this goal is the implementation of strictly protected forest reserves (SPFRs). Many countries have adopted this approach and set target values for SPFRs, for example Germany aims to set aside 5 % of the forest area by 2020 (BMU, Strategie zur Biologischen Vielfalt, ). The contribution of SPFRs to biodiversity conservation cannot be assessed without considering the quality or conservation value of these areas. One challenge lies in the selection of specific criteria to evaluate this contribution of existing SPFRs. For Central Europe we reviewed these specific evaluation criteria and their ecological theory and evidence underpinning their relevance for an assessment as well as the interrelations between criteria. In addition, we present a framework for the integration of these criteria into an evaluation process. To identify criteria typically used or recommended for the evaluation of SPFRs, we analyzed the international conventions and reviewed the scientific literature on biodiversity conservation, specifically on area selection, status assessment and gap analysis. Since nearly all criteria were interrelated and operate at different scales, we developed a coherent evaluation framework to integrate them. Within this framework the criteria cover the fundamental aspects: space (completeness and connectivity), time (habitat continuity and persistence), and function (naturalness, rarity/threat and representativeness). This approach, once it is complemented by indicators, may be used to evaluate the extent to which individual SPFRs as well as a system of SPFRs contribute to the protection of natural forest biodiversity at a national level. It may be particularly relevant for Central European countries with a similar ecological, historical and political context.