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In the case of Down syndrome, the extra chromosome is chromosome 21.

Every person with Down syndrome is different, and the potential of each one is different, also. Speech problems are common, especially difficulty in speaking clearly. Practical and social skills are usually better than reasoning skills and in adult life a wide range of independence can be achieved depending on the ability, skills and personality of the individual. Sheltered or open employment is also within the capabilities of most people.

In the following studies, the various strengths and weaknesses of the language and communication of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) is reviewed and discussed.

Down syndrome occurs at conception, so nothing in the pregnancy can cause Down syndrome to occur.

The effects of Down syndrome are caused by an extra chromosome.

Included within this group of students are those who are diagnosed with Down syndrome.

One of the more notable aspects of Down syndrome is the wide variety of features and characteristics of people with trisomy 21: There is a wide range of mental retardation and developmental delay noted among children with Down syndrome. Some babies are born with heart defects and others aren't. Some children have associated illnesses such as epilepsy, hypothyroidism or celiac disease, and others don't. The first possible reason is the difference in the genes that are triplicated. As I mentioned above, genes can come in different alternate forms, called "alleles." The effect of overexpression of genes may depend on which allele is present in the person with trisomy 21. The second reason that might be involved is called "penetrance." If one allele causes a condition to be present in some people but not others, that is called "variable penetrance," and that appears to be what happens with trisomy 21: the alleles don't do the same thing to every person who has it. Both reasons may be why there is such variation in children and adults with Down syndrome.

(North RV, Ophthal Physiol Opt, 7(2): 109-114, 1987)

Q: What is the life expectancy for people with Down syndrome?
A: This is a more complicated question than it seems, because how you answer it depends on how you look at the statistics.

Down syndrome can be caused for three different reasons....

Researchers are busy in their attempts to map out the full structure of the chromosome, including the Human Genome Database. Because of the small size of the 21st chromosome and its association with Down syndrome, it is the second-most heavily mapped human chromosome. Research is focusing on trying to identify genes and their effects when overexpressed.

There are several genes that researchers believe might be involved in causing Down syndrome.

I am a 32 year old English teacher. My physical problems concerning Gilbert Syndrome started after I came down with mono. It took several months for me to recover from it, but when I did I started experiencing IBS and other digestive problems… The IBS continued sporadically over the next five years. I tried to pinpoint a certain food that would trigger it, but nothing was consistent. This past summer was the climax of my Gilbert experience… I had difficulty digesting food. I was constipated, had stomach cramps/pain, felt nauseated every morning and during long periods of time when I didn't eat, and was extremely fatigued... This doctor told me the stomach pains must be stress related, and that I should find ways to decrease stress in my life. I thought this had some legitimacy, so I tried to change some things, but nothing improved. Then, this same doctor told me it might be gallbladder problems, and sent me to have some tests. No cysts, stones, or unusual developments were discovered. They then did tests of my digestive track, taking scans of food as it was processed. After two of these tests, and scoping down my throat, they found me to be perfectly healthy. We ruled out allergies, food poisoning, and dietary influences. I was normal in all accounts except my bilirubin count, which was more than double the normal amount... I have similar abdominal pain towards the right side just under my rib cage. The doctor thought it was gallbladder problems due to the location of the pain. However, those tests came back negative. After I eat, I also feel great discomfort, almost like I'm going to explode, even if I only eat a little bit. I find myself holding my stomach, or stretching to make room (as if I'd eaten a huge Thanksgiving dinner). Afterwards, the food rumbles in my stomach and causes short burps and mild acid reflux. I feel like I'm going to throw up, but I don't. It really is rather uncomfortable. The only source of comfort is to lay down flat on a couch.

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One of the most common of these genetic disorders is Down syndrome.


Trisomy 21 is the most common type of Down syndrome....

Choosing the essay topic for cause and effect essay type is not difficult, here are some sample essay topics : Effects of Pollution, the Changes in the Ocean, the Civil Rights Movement and the Effects.

One example of a link is Down’s syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.

Twenty-seven months of US bombing of North Vietnam have had remarkably little effect on Hanoi’s over-all strategy in prosecuting the war, on its confident view of long-term Communist prospects, and on its political tactics regarding negotiations. The growing pressure of US air operations has not shaken the North Vietnamese leaders’ conviction that they can withstand the bombing and outlast the US and South Vietnam in a protracted war of attrition. Nor has it caused them to waver in their belief that the outcome of this test of will and endurance will be determined primarily by the course of the conflict on the ground in the South, not by the air war in the North.

What causes Down syndrome? - NICHD

I have had IBS for a long long time until realized that it wasn't normal to have diarrhea for years at a time. My bilirubin is generally 2.1 to 2.5 though once it was .6! but that was after swimming in the Caribbean for a month and eating the food down there --- very little IBS at the time as well. I always feel like my bowels are burning and swollen before a bout of IBS… I have GS and IBS and believe I have a sensitivity to gluten as well, because every time I eat bread it makes my abdomen burn and swell... needless to say I have been on a gluten free diet for a while now

2012-6-11 · What causes Down syndrome

In November, whilst doing various DIY tasks around the house i started feeling hot, nauseous, dizzy and developed what felt like a hair caught in my lower throat. I went to the Doctor and said i was concerned about the throat and was given a course of antibiotics. From 2 days in to the antibiotics my health has gone haywire. The nausea got stronger and it noticeable waves throughout the day, my eyesight deteriorated and when the nausea was strong i would see yellow flashing specks in my vision which would last for weeks at a time. I struggled against whatever this was and tried to keep active but the effects got worse and my initial throat senstaion disappeared to be replaced with the most sore aching muscles frpm jaw to upper chest. The sensation was of being physically strangled and then it would ease and I would find myself yawning continuously for 5 minutes. The whole of my mind and body had a feeling of being drugged on amphetamines. My sleep was poor, getting to sleep difficult and upon waking I felt totally groggy. Then I developed muscle aches, twitching and spasms down left leg and right arm to which the doctor prescribed drugs for shingles, not surprisingly this had no effect. He surmised that I had been wiped out by a virus in November (the antibiotics helping the virus) and because I was run down and stressed I failed to fight it off properly. The virus had knocked my liver out and he said I suffered from Gilberts Syndrome and was now suffering from Post Viral Fatigue, or Chronic Fatigue Syndrome otherwise known as ME.

Essay about The Cause and Effects of Down Syndrome

Guerrillas manufactured homemade bombs and mines from unexploded American ordinance. They set up punji traps and camouflaged land-mines for GIs to step on while on patrol. To trick American ground sensors, which were prone to false alarm and inaccurate placement, they used decoys such as sending herds of cattle to simulate troop movement. NLF officers placed their radio huts at a distance from command posts, resulting in air strikes “blast[ing] a patch of jungle just because a transmitter had been heard there,” according to an NSA study. Tanks and other heavy equipment as well as rice supplies were shipped through an alternative route from the heavily bombed Ho Chi Minh trail, Cambodia’s Port of Sihanoukville. Some of the most dedicated revolutionary fighters were women, following the example of the Trung sisters and Lady Trieu who had fought previous foreign invaders. Nguyen Thi Dinh led rebellions in Ben Tre province, while Ngo Thi Tuyen carried 95 kilograms of ammunition (twice her body weight) down the Ho Chi Minh Trail.

Down syndrome - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Yesterday I had felt alot of pain on my right side below my ribs and it hurts alot. Sometimes when I'm sitting it dont hurt as much but If I move or am walking I have to be slightly bent over cuz it hurts. I cant lay down or much of anything else without it causing pain. I dont know if it'd just be gas or something else, I've tried some pills for indigestion but nothing works.

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